Finland and Nokia
Finland, with a special language and culture, has developed as a country in between the west (the Nordic region and Europe) and the east (especially its neighbor Russia). In the 1980s, a process started of moving out of an investment-driven economy into an innovation-driven one. With the collapse of the Soviet Union around 1990, Finland reached a crisis. This case covers policy changes made in the 1990s and how, by 2002, the country had managed to become one of the most competitive in the world. A large part of the success could be attributed to the dynamic telecommunications cluster--especially Nokia, accounting for some 70% to 80% of the cluster exports and the world leader in mobile phones. Nokia also reached a crisis around 1990.
- 2002 HBS
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