Slavery and Islam
What happens when authorities you venerate condone something you know is wrong? Every major religion and philosophy once condoned or approved of slavery, but in modern times nothing is seen as more evil. Americans confront this crisis of authority when they erect statues of Founding Fathers who slept with their slaves. And Muslims faced it when ISIS revived sex-slavery, justifying it with verses from the Quran and the practice of Muhammad. Exploring the moral and ultimately theological problem of slavery, Jonathan A.C. Brown traces how the Christian, Jewish and Islamic traditions have tried to reconcile modern moral certainties with the infallibility of God&’s message. He lays out how Islam viewed slavery in theory, and the reality of how it was practiced across Islamic civilization. Finally, Brown carefully examines arguments put forward by Muslims for the abolition of slavery. CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgments Notes on transliteration, dates and citationIntroduction: Can We Talk About Slavery? What I Argue in this Book Apology for Slavery? Power and the Study of Slavery Blackness, Whiteness and Slavery 1. Does &‘Slavery&’ Exist? The Problem of Definition The Main Argument Definition: A Creative Process Definition to Discourse: A Political Process Defining \ˈslā-v(ə-)rē\: We Know It When We See It Defining Slavery as Status or a Condition Slavery as Unfreedom Slavery as Human Property Patterson & Natal Alienation Slavery as Distinction: The Lowest Rung & Marginality Slavery as Coercion & Exploitation under the Threat of Violence The Problem with Modern-Day Slavery Slavery & Islam – A Very Political Question Conclusion: Of Course, Slavery Exists The Proper Terms for Speaking about &‘Slavery&’ 2. Slavery in the Shariah What Islam Says about Slavery – Ideals and Reality Slavery in the Quran & Sunna Inheriting the Near East – Roman, Jewish and Near Eastern Laws versus Islam Islam&’s Reform of Slavery Basic Principles of Riqq in the Shariah The Ambiguities of Slavery in the Shariah Riqq & Rights in the Shariah Religious Practice Freedom of Movement Social and Political Roles Marriage and Family Life Right to Property Rights to Life and Physical Protection Summary: Law and Ethics 3. Slavery in Islamic Civilization What is Islamic Civilization? Is there &‘Islamic Slavery&’? The Shariah & Islamic Slavery Muslims Enslaving Muslims The Classic Slavery Zone Consuming People & &‘Ascending Miscegenation&’ Slave Populations Routes of the Muslim Slave Trade Blackness and Slavery in Islamic Civilization The Roles and Experiences of Slaves in Islamic Civilization The Slave as Uprooted Person and Commodity The Slave as Domestic Labor . . . Even Trusted Member of a Household Slave as Sexual Partner Slave as Saint, Scholar or Poet Slave as Elite Administrator & Courtesan Slave as Soldier – When Soldiers often Ruled Slave as Rebel 4. The Slavery Conundrum No Squaring the Circle: The American/Islamic Slavery Conundrum Slavery is Evil The Intrinsic Wrongs of Slavery Religions and Slavery Minimizing the Unminimizable or Historicizing the Unhistoricizable Slavery is Slavery: The Problem of Labeling &‘Slavery&’ with One Moral Judgment The Moral Wrongness of Slavery as Unfreedom The Moral Wrongness of Slavery as Owning Human Property
- 2019 Jonathan A. C. Brown
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